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How to make a higher precision machine tool "plane"

  • Categories:Industry News
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  • Time of issue:2021-06-23
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(Summary description)In the machine tool industry, the most word I hear is "precision". For a machine tool, accuracy often represents the highest precision level of the workpiece that can be processed by the machine tool. The accuracy generally has two concepts, one is processing accuracy and the other is measurement accuracy. How to reflect that the size required by the designer is the machining accuracy, and how to know the finished size of the machining is the measurement accuracy. Both of these precisions directly depend on the precision of the processing machine or the machine tool of the measuring machine. Today we will mainly discuss the "absolute plane" problem involved in machining accuracy.

How to make a higher precision machine tool "plane"

(Summary description)In the machine tool industry, the most word I hear is "precision". For a machine tool, accuracy often represents the highest precision level of the workpiece that can be processed by the machine tool. The accuracy generally has two concepts, one is processing accuracy and the other is measurement accuracy. How to reflect that the size required by the designer is the machining accuracy, and how to know the finished size of the machining is the measurement accuracy. Both of these precisions directly depend on the precision of the processing machine or the machine tool of the measuring machine. Today we will mainly discuss the "absolute plane" problem involved in machining accuracy.

  • Categories:Industry News
  • Author:
  • Origin:
  • Time of issue:2021-06-23
  • Views:0

In the machine tool industry, the most word I hear is "precision". For a machine tool, accuracy often represents the highest precision level of the workpiece that can be processed by the machine tool. The accuracy generally has two concepts, one is processing accuracy and the other is measurement accuracy. How to reflect that the size required by the designer is the machining accuracy, and how to know the finished size of the machining is the measurement accuracy. Both of these precisions directly depend on the precision of the processing machine or the machine tool of the measuring machine. Today we will mainly discuss the "absolute plane" problem involved in machining accuracy.

As we all know, the machining accuracy of machinery and equipment will only be lost but not increased. For example, a 0.01mm precision machine can only process workpieces with an error greater than 0.01mm. Therefore, even if the assembly error is not considered, use a medium machining precision machine. Machines assembled with processed parts can only achieve accuracy greater than 0.01 mm. If you want to produce and assemble mechanical parts with an accuracy of less than 0.01 mm, you can only manufacture them with processing machinery with an error of less than 0.01 mm. According to this principle, to manufacture high-precision processing machinery, only higher-level precision processing machinery can be used. So here is a question: how are processing machinery with higher level of precision manufactured?

  In fact, this problem is the same as that of manufacturing production tools from nothing in the development of human society. Primitive humans* began to use stones as tools, and then processed the stones into delicate stones. Then with the development of society, mankind began to process bronze, ironware and other products, all from rough to precise, through constant matching, finding standards, and refined standards, and then manually polished into more precise tools by workers. process. From this rule, it can be concluded that all high-precision machine tools are processed by low-level precision machine tools, and then processed manually by workers.

   The overall accuracy of the mechanical system is composed of the accuracy of each link in the system, but the accuracy of different links has different effects on the overall accuracy of the system. Among them, the biggest influence on machining accuracy is the guide rail part. The movement of the machine is restricted by the guide rail, and the precision of the guide rail directly determines the accuracy of the mechanical movement. The sliding surface of the ultra-precision mechanical guide rail is called the "absolute plane", and the accuracy is required to be above 1/10000 mm. No machine can process this absolute plane, and it can only be processed manually. I believe anyone who has seen the sliding surface of high-precision machine tool rails knows that the so-called "absolute plane" is not a smooth mirror surface, but a plane covered with regular patterns. Those patterns are the blades of the craftsman who made this plane. The trace left behind.

To create an absolute plane is more difficult than the "difficult things" in the public sense. It requires a craftsman with rich experience to shovel the rough-machined plane one by one with a shovel, and while shoveling out the required plane. Make a control plane, then paint the color on the control plane, and slide the processing plane on the control plane. At this time, the color-stained part on the processing plane and the color-dropped part on the control plane are the higher parts of the two planes, which need to be shoveled off. This process often needs to be repeated many, many times, until the colors on the two planes are completely uniform. And often the knife marks left on the plane at this time are used as lubricating oil grooves, which is not killing two birds with one stone.

But it is not enough to make an absolute plane through the above steps, because if the same arc is formed between the two surfaces, the same effect will be produced, so this can only mean that the two surfaces are exactly the same, and it is not guaranteed to be a plane. So you need to add another reference plane. Generally speaking, when processing an absolute plane, three planes need to be processed at the same time. Only when any two of the three planes are the same, the absolute plane is calculated. In this process, rigorous measuring instruments and the hands of skilled craftsmen are indispensable.

Companies that can make absolute planes represent the level of high-end manufacturing in a sense, and the companies that use absolute planes for processing machinery of this type are mainly in Germany, Switzerland, and Japan. The reason why countries can produce high-precision machinery and equipment.

Yu Tianren, a freelance writer who has lived in Japan all the year round, pointed out in his book "The sun is going to set in the east?" that Japanese precision processing companies are mainly concentrated in the area around the 43th parallel of the north latitude in Niigata Prefecture. There are meteorological reasons. The Japanese precision craftsmanship was learned from the Germans. At that time, when Japan selected the location of the precision processing industry, it chose the 43° north latitude area, which has a climate similar to that of Germany. The humidity is small, and the temperature is around 20 degrees Celsius, which is in line with the environmental requirements required for precision machining. Since there was no constant temperature equipment such as air conditioners at that time, it was necessary to pay attention to the temperature difference when selecting the processing site. The expansion and contraction of materials caused by the temperature difference had a great impact on the manufacture and assembly of precision products. The temperature difference not only affects the workpiece, but now many ultra-precision grinders use granite instead of ordinary cast iron for the bed, which is also to reduce the influence of the temperature difference.

These precision processing companies in Japan are basically small companies composed of a few to dozens of individuals. It is not too much to call them small workshops, but it is precisely because of these small workshops that Yasuda, Mori, and Makino are world-renowned The brand of machinery can be famous all over the world. The Japanese economy has been sluggish for more than ten years, but these companies engaged in hand-made sliding planes have never been affected, because this kind of industry is the foundation of the manufacturing industry and requires superb technology and rich experience. The products they produce have never been affected. There is only enough, no surplus. Especially with the continuous expansion of the application range of electronic technology, the requirements for high-precision processing machinery and equipment will only continue to grow and not decrease.

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